With regard to the clothing, the main bulk
was of woollen material as supplied by Jaeger of London.
This firm is unexcelled in the production of camel's-hair
garments and has supplied most polar expeditions of recent
years with underclothing, gloves, caps, and the like. From
the same firm we also secured heavy ski-boots, finnesko-crampons,
and the blankets which were used at Winter Quarters at both
Antarctic Bases. Some of the Jaeger woollens were damaged
by sea water on the voyage from London to Australia and
were replaced by Eagley goods; an Australian brand, which
proved very satisfactory. The Ship's Party were outfitted
with Kaipoi woollens (New Zealand).
were made up to our design from Jaeger fleece by tailors
in Hobart. The suit consisted of a single garment, to be
worn with combination underclothing, and was calculated
to meet the requirements of a severe climate.
over-suit of wind-proof material, which may be worn when
required, is a necessary adjunct to woollen clothing. Such
a suit should have the additional properties of being light,
strong, not readily absorbing moisture, and not affected
by the cold. Burberry gabardine was found to possess all
these properties, and two complete suits were made up for
each man. One suit consisted of three pieces, whilst the
other was made of two; the blouse-jacket and helmet of the
latter being combined.
Furs, which were obtained
from Norway, were restricted to sleeping-bags, finnesko
or fur-boots, and wolfskin mitts (Lapland).
of clothing for the party at Macquarie Island and on the
Ship, respectively, differed from that used in the Antarctic.
Warmer temperatures and wet conditions had to be taken into
account, and so rubber boots, oilskins, and rubberized materials
were provided as outer coverings.
The food-stuffs were selected with at least as much
consideration as was given to any of the other requisites.
The successful work of an expedition depends on the health
of the men who form its members, and good and suitable food
reduces to a minimum the danger of scurvy; a scourge which
has marred many polar enterprises. Thus our provisioning
was arranged with care and as a result of my previous experience
in the Antarctic with Sir Ernest Shackleton's Expedition.
A summary which may be of possible use to future expeditions
is appended below:
In the matter of canned meats
we had some six tons of the excellent Australian article
supplied by the Sydney Meat Preserving Company, Ramornie
Meat Company (N.S.W.), Baynes Brothers (Brisbane), and the
Border (rabbit) Preserving Company of South Australia. For
use on the Ship three tons of salt beef and pork served
to replenish the ``harness cask,'' largely obtained
in Melbourne from Cook and Sons.
For a ton of sauces
and pickles we were indebted to Brand and Company (London)
and to Mason and Company (London).
Of course fresh
meat was consumed as far as possible; a number of live sheep
being taken by the `Aurora' on each cruise. Some of
these were killed and dressed after reaching 60 degrees
south latitude and supplied our two Antarctic Bases with
the luxury of fresh mutton about once a week throughout
One ton of preserved suet came from the firms
of Hugon (Manchester) and Conrad (Adelaide).
all our bacon and ham, amounting to well over one ton, was
of the Pineapple Brand (Sydney), and to the firm which supplied
them we are indebted alike for the quality of its goods
and for its generosity.
Soups in endless variety,
totalling two tons, came chiefly from the Flemington Meat
Preserving Company (Melbourne).
Fours tons of canned
fish were supplied by C. & E. Morton (London).
Variety in vegetables was considered important. We decided
to reduce the amount of dried vegetables in favour of canned
vegetables. About six and a half tons of the latter in addition
to one ton of canned potatoes were consumed; from Laver
Brothers (Melbourne) and Heinz (Pittsburgh). There were
one and a half tons of dried vegetables. In addition, large
quantities of fresh potatoes and other vegetables were regularly
carried by the `Aurora', and many bags of new and old
potatoes were landed at the Main Base. In the frozen condition,
the former kept satisfactorily, though they were somewhat
sodden when thawed. The old potatoes, on the other hand,
became black and useless, partly owing to the comparatively
high temperature of the ship's hold, and in part to
the warmth of the sun during the first few weeks in Adelie
Canned fruits, to the extent of five tons,
were supplied by Jones Brothers (Hobart) and Laver Brothers
(Melbourne). This stock was eked out by some two and a half
tons of dried fruits, chiefly from South Australia.
The management of Hartley (London) presented us with
two tons of jam, and James Keiller and Son (London) with
one ton of marmalade.
Of the twelve tons of sugar
and half a ton of syrup consumed, all were generously donated
by the Colonial Sugar Refining Company (Sydney).
For milk we were provided with two tons of Glaxo (a dry
powder) which was used at the land bases, and a ton and
a half of Nestle's condensed variety for use on the
Three tons of cereal meals, largely from Parsons
(Sydney), were consumed.
As one might have expected,
the amount of flour used was enormous. In the thirteen tons
of this commodity from Colman (London) there were three
varieties, self-rising, plain, and wheatmeal flour, encased
in stout metal linings within strong, well-finished cases
of a convenient size. Until required, the cases of flour
were used to solidify the break-wind on the southern side
of the Hut.
Bird and Company (Birmingham) more than
satisfied our needs in the matter of baking powder, custard
powder, jelly crystals, and the like.
There was over
half a ton of fancy biscuits of excellent quality and great
variety, for which we were indebted to Jacob and Company
(Dublin), Arnott Brothers (Sydney), and Patria Biscuit Fabriek
(Amsterdam). ``Hardtack,'' the name by which a plain
wholemeal biscuit of good quality, made by Swallow and Ariell
(Melbourne) was known, constituted the greater part of the
remaining two and a half tons of ordinary biscuits. ``Hardtack''
was much appreciated as a change from the usual ``staff
of life''--soda bread.
For sledging we had
secured one ton of biscuits specially prepared by the Plasmon
Company (London) containing 30 per cent. of plasmon. These,
together with one ton of pemmican and half a ton of emergency
ration prepared by the Bovril Company (London), are specially
referred to in the chapter on sledging equipment.
Butter was an important item; the large stock of two
and a half tons coming from the Colac Dairying Company (Melbourne).
The butter was taken fresh in fifty-six lb. blocks, packed
in the usual export cases. On the `Aurora' it was carried
as deck-cargo, and at the Main Base was stacked in the open
air on the southern side of the Hut. At the end of the second
year (1913) it was still quite good; a fact which speaks
well for the climate as a refrigerator. Of Australian cheese
we used half a ton, and this was supplied in forty-pound
The firm of Messrs. Cadbury, well known for
their cocoa and eating chocolate, supplied us with these
commodities, and receive our unqualified praise for the
standard of the articles and the way in which they were
packed. The total consumption was one ton of cocoa and half
a ton of chocolate.
The three-quarters of a ton of
tea was donated by ``Te Sol'' (Guernsey) and Griffiths
Brothers (Melbourne). In both cases the articles were well
packed and much appreciated. Half a ton of coffee was used,
partly supplied from London and partly donated by Griffiths
Rose's (London) lime juice, as an antiscorbutic,
was mainly reserved for consumption on the Ship. This lime
juice was much in favour as a beverage.
taken in bulk, and for which we are indebted to the manufacturers,
are: one ton of Cerebos Salt, half a ton of Castle salt,
one ton of Sunlight Soap, our complete requirements in toilet
soap from Pears, candles from Price, matches from Bryant
and May including special sledging vestas, and dried milk
from the Trufood Company.
Sweets, which were used
for dessert and on special occasions, were presented by
the firms of Fuller and Batger of London, and by Farrah
of Harrogate, &c. There were also small quantities of
aerated waters, ales, wines, and whisky for each Base.**
At the Main Base, at least, there was no demand for whisky
until penguin omelettes became fashionable.
Donated by Schweppes, Kopke, Burgoyne, and others.
The smokers were well provided for by a generous donation
of Capstan tobaccos, cigarettes and cigars from the British
American Tobacco Company in London. At a later date, when
our Macquarie Island party was formed, the Sydney branch
of the same firm met our added needs with the same generosity.
There are many other items which have not yet found
a place in this summary which cannot be acknowledged severally,
but for which we are none the less grateful. Mention is
made of the following: Horlick's Malted Milk, Neave's
Health Diet, Brown and Polson's Cornflour, International
Plasmon Company's Plasmon chocolate and Plasmon powder,
Bovril and lime juice nodules manufactured by Bovril Limited,
Colman's Mustard and Groats, Flemington Meat Company's
desiccated soups, Seager's meats, Nestle's nut-milk
chocolate, Escoffier's soups, &c.
range which served us well for two years in the Hut at Adelie
Land was from J. Smith and Wellstood (London); others were
presented by Metters (Adelaide).
The total supply
of foods purchased and donated aggregated quite one hundred
tons, exclusive of packing. Much of this was assembled in
London. In Australia the Government Produce Department of
Adelaide rendered valuable assistance.
TABLE OF FOOD-SUPPLIES FOR A TWELVE-MAN
The following are the food requirements
for a party of twelve men wintering in the Antarctic. It
is our own store list, with slight modifications where these
are found desirable. The figures are based on the supposition
that unlimited quantities of seal and penguin meat can be
had on the spot, and, furthermore, are ample for a second
year's requirements should the party be unavoidably
detained. The fare during the second year might be somewhat
less varied, but would otherwise be sufficient. Health was,
of course, the first consideration in this selection, but
economy was also studied. The quantities are stated in pounds
Meats, tinned--Corned beef,
216; roast beef, 72; roast mutton, 72; boiled mutton, 72;
Irish stew, 216; assorted meats, 168, including mutton cutlets,
haricot mutton, ox tail, ox tongue, sausages, and brawn;
sheep's tongues, 288; special meats, 192, including
rabbit, hare, duck, fowl, and turkey . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 1296
Live sheep--16 sheep
to be dressed south of 60 degrees S. latitude (weight not
Suet, tinned--400 . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 400
and Ham--Bacon in sides, packed in salt, 250; ham, 250
. . . 500
Fish, tinned--Salmon, 360; haddocks,
96; kippered herrings, 216; herrings in tomato sauce, 72;
fresh herrings, 72; sardines, 300;
cods' roe, curried
prawns, &c., 72 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , 1188
Soups, assorted tinned, 1152 . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . 1152
in wooden cases--new potatoes, 1200; onions, 3601 Tinned--potatoes,
864; onions, 216; peas, 450; French beans, 450; spinach,
360; cabbage, 144; beetroot, 288; carrots, 288; parsnips,
144; turnips, 108; celery, 144; leeks, 72; champignons,
144; Boston baked beans, 144; tomatoes, 288 . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3240
Dried Vegetables, &c.--Split peas, 112; lentils,
56; marrowfat peas, 56; haricot beans, 56; barley, 72; rice,
252; tapioca, 144; semolina, 56; macaroni, 56; rolled oats,
648; cornflour, 156 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . 1664
Flour, including plain, wholemeal,
and self-rising . . . . . . 4480 Biscuits, &c.--Plasmon
wholemeal, 1344; plain wholemeal, 560; assorted sweet, 560;
cake tinned, 224; plum pudding, 224 . . . . 1712
Fruit, tinned in syrup--peaches, 288; pears, 288;
plums, 288; apricots, 288; pineapples, 288; apples, 288;
gooseberries, 216; cherries, 216; mulberries, 48; strawberries,
48; red currants, 48; black currants, 48; raspberries, 48
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2400
112; apples, 112; peaches, 56; nectarines, 56; apricots,
56; raisins seeded, 224; currants, 112; figs, 224; dates,
112; candied peel, 56 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sweets, &c.--Eating chocolate (chiefly
for sledging) 504; assorted sweets, 168; crystallized fruits,
56; assorted nuts, 84 . . . . . 812
dried powder, 2400 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Butter--in 56 lb. export cases, 1456
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1456
original blocks or tins, 240 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240
Cocoa, Tea, and Coffee--Cocoa, 576; tea, 288;
coffee, 288 . . . . 1152
Sugar, Jam, &c.--Sugar,
3584; jam, 1456; marmalade, 448; honey, 576; syrup, 288
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6352
Sauces, Pickles, &c.--Tomato sauce, 180; Worcester
sauce, 135; sweet pickles, 162; mango chutney, 81; assorted
pickles (first quality) 216; vinegar, 210 . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . 984
Cooking requisites--Baking powder
(in addition to that in self rising flour) 56; sodium bicarbonate,
1; ground mixed spice, 3; ground ginger, 4; whole cloves,
1; nutmegs, 2; assorted essences, 10; desiccated cocoanut,
12; mixed dried herbs, 2; dried mint, 6; dried parsley,
1; onion powder, 9; curry powder, 30; mustard, 30; black
pepper, 12; white pepper, 12; table salt, 784 . . . . .
. . . . . 975
Soap, &c.--Soap, 448; soda, 168
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 616
(16 tons approx.)
Note. These weights are exclusive of packing.
When high southern latitudes can be reached within three
weeks, fresh eggs may be taken with advantage, preferably
unfertilized, but care should be taken to freeze them as
soon as possible, and not to allow them to thaw again until
required for use. It is advisable to take small quantities
of whisky, ale, wines and lime juice. Matches, candles,
soap, and other toilet requirements, kerosene and fuel are
not reckoned with here, appearing in a more general stores'
list. Certain medical comforts, such as malted milk and
plasmon, may also be included.
medical equipment consisted of a complete outfit of Burroughs
and Wellcome's drug's, dressings, &c., and Allen
and Hanbury's surgical instruments. Sets, varying in
character with particular requirements, were made up for
the Ship and for each of the land parties. Contained within
the fifty-five boxes was a wonderful assortment of everything
which could possibly have been required on a polar expedition.
There was in addition a set of Burroughs and Wellcome's
medicines for the treatment of dogs.
The scope of our projected scientific
work necessitated extensive purchases, and these were amplified
by loans from many scientific bodies and individuals.
Instruments for surveying and navigation were loaned
by the Royal Geographical Society and by the Admiralty,
while many theodolites, chronometers, and half-chronometer
watches were manufactured to order.
of oceanographical gear was generously supplied through
H. S. H. The Prince of Monaco, from the Institut Oceanographique
of Monaco. Dr. W. S. Bruce made similar donations and supervised
the construction of our largest deep-sea dredge. The three-thousand-
fathom tapered steel cables and mountings, designed to work
the deep-water dredges, were supplied by Messrs. Bullivant.
Appliances were also loaned by Mr. J. T. Buchanan of the
`Challenger' Expedition and by the Commonwealth Fisheries
Department. The self-recording tide-gauges we employed were
the property of the New South Wales Government, obtained
through Mr. G. Halligan.
The taxidermists' requirements,
and other necessaries for the preservation of zoological
specimens, were for the most part purchased, but great assistance
was rendered through Professor Baldwin-Spencer by the National
Museum of Melbourne and by the South Australian Museum,
through the offices of Professor Stirling. Articles of equipment
for botanical work were loaned by Mr. J. H. Maiden, Director
of the Botanical Gardens, Sydney.
A supply of heavy
cameras for base-station work and light cameras for sledging
was purchased; our stock being amplified by many private
cameras, especially those belonging to F. H. Hurley, photographer
of the Expedition. Special Lumiere plates and material for
colour photography were not omitted, and, during the final
cruise of the `Aurora', P. E. Correll employed the more
recent Paget process for colour photography with good results.
The programme of magnetic work was intended to be as
extensive as possible. In the matter of equipment we were
very materially assisted by the Carnegie Institute through
Dr. L. A. Bauer. An instrument was also loaned through Mr.
H. F. Skey of the Christchurch Magnetic Observatory. A full
set of Eschenhagen self-recording instruments was purchased,
and in this and in other dispositions for the magnetic work
we have to thank Dr. C. Chree, Director of the National
Physical Laboratory, and Dr. C. C. Farr of University College,
Christchurch. Captain Chetwynd kindly assisted in arrangements
for the Ship's compasses.
Two complete sets of
Telefunken wireless apparatus were purchased from the Australasian
Wireless Company. The motors and dynamos were got from Buzzacott,
Sydney, and the masts were built by Saxton and Binns, Sydney.
Manilla and tarred-hemp ropes were supplied on generous
terms by Melbourne firms (chiefly Kinnear).
instruments were largely purchased from Negretti and Zambra,
but a great number were loaned by the Commonwealth Meteorological
Department (Director, Mr. H. A. Hunt) and by the British
Meteorological Office (Director, Dr. W. N. Shaw).
For astronomical work the following instruments were
loaned, besides transit-theodolites and sextants: a four-inch
telescope by the Greenwich Observatory through the Astronomer
Royal: a portable transit-theodolite by the Melbourne Observatory
through the Director, Mr. P. Baracchi; two stellar sidereal
chronometers by the Adelaide Observatory through the Astronomer,
Mr. P. Dodwell.
The apparatus for bacteriological
and physiological work were got in Sydney, in arrangements
and suggestions for which our thanks are due to Dr. Tidswell
(Microbiological Laboratory) and Professor Welsh, of Sydney
Artists' materials were supplied
by Winsor and Newton, London, while the stationery was partly
donated by John Sands, Limited, Sydney
Geological, chemical, and physical apparatus
were all acquired at the instance of the several workers.
Adjuncts, such as a calculating machine, a typewriter,
and duplicator were not forgotten.**
donations of various articles were made by the firms of
Ludowici, Sydney; Allen Taylor, Sydney; Sames and Company,
Birmingham; Gamage, London; Gramophone Company, London;
the Acetylene Corporation, London; Steel Trucks Ltd., &c.
**Through the offices of Mr. C. A. Bang we are indebted
to ``De Forenede Dampskibsselskab,'' of Copenhagen,
for the transport of the dogs from Greenland.
Apart from the acquisition of the instruments, there
were long preparations to be made in the arrangement of
the scientific programme and in the training of the observers.
In this department the Expedition was assisted by many friends.
Thus Professor W. A. Haswell (Biology), Professor T.
W. Edgeworth David (Geology), and Mr. H. A. Hunt (Meteorology),
each drew up instructions relating to his respective sphere.
Training in astronomical work at the Melbourne Observatory
was supervised by Mr. P. Baracchi, Director, and in magnetic
work by the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie
Institute (Director, Dr. L. A. Bauer). Further, in the subject
of magnetics, we have to thank especially Mr. E. Kidston
of the Carnegie Institute for field tuition, and Mr. Baldwin
of the Melbourne Observatory for demonstrations in the working
of the Eschenhagen magnetographs. Professor J. A. Pollock
gave us valuable advice on wireless and other physical subjects.
At the Australian Museum, Sydney, Mr. Hedley rendered assistance
in the zoological preparations. In the conduct of affairs
we were assisted on many occasions by Messrs. W. S. Dun
(Sydney), J. H. Maiden (Sydney), Robert Hall (Hobart), G.
H. Knibbs (Melbourne),and to the presidents and members
of the councils of the several Geographical Societies in
Australia--as well, of course, as to those of the Royal
Geographical Society, London.
In conclusion, the
proffered, disinterested help, of all the above and many
other friends contrived to make our scientific equipment
well-nigh complete and eminently up-to-date.