Antarctic History - A Time Line of the Exploration of Antarctica
A brief history of the exploration of Antarctica
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It was the ancient Greeks who first came up with the idea of Antarctica. They knew about the Arctic - named Arktos -The Bear, from the constellation the great bear and decided that in order to balance the world, there should be a similar cold Southern landmass that was the same but the opposite "Ant - Arktos" - opposite The Bear. They never actually went there, it was just a lucky guess!
In January, Captain James Cook crosses the Antarctic circle and circumnavigates Antarctica, though he doesn't sight land, deposits of rock seen in icebergs showed that a southern continent exists. His comment - "I make bold to declare that the world will derive no benefit from it".1819 - 21
Captain Thaddeus Bellingshausen a Russian naval officer in the Vostok and Mirny circumnavigates the Antarctic, first to cross the Antarctic circle since Cook.
He made the first sighting of the continent, reaching 69° 21'S, 2° 14'W - describing an "icefield covered with small hillocks." on Jan 27th 1820.
For some considerable time, exactly who and when first set eyes on Antarctica were in dispute as British naval officers, William Smith and Edward Bransfield also saw Antarctica on Jan 30th the same year - followed by American sealer Nathaniel Palmer on Nov 16th.
This was the first time a continent had truly been "discovered" (i.e. there weren't any native peoples living there who'd known about it for ages already). All sightings are of the Antarctic Peninsula.1821
February the 7th. 1st known landing on continental Antarctica by American sealer Captain John Davis, though this is not acknowledged by all historians.
In the winter of 1821, for the first time ever a party of men spent a winter in Antarctica. An officer and ten men from a British sealing ship the Lord Melville had to spend the winter on King George Island -part of the South Shetlands group, north of the Antarctic Peninsula. The ship had been driven offshore and did not return to pick them up again. They were rescued the following summer.1823
British whaler James Weddell discovers the sea named after him and then reaches the most southerly point at that time 74° 15' S. No one else manages to penetrate the Weddell sea again for 80 years.1840's
Separate British, French and American expeditions establish the status of Antarctica as a continent after sailing along continuous coastline.
In 1840, British naval officer and scientist James Clark Ross takes two ships, the Erebus and the Terror, to within 80 miles of the coast until stopped by a massive ice barrier - now called the Ross Ice Shelf. He also discovers the active volcano that he names after his ship Erebus, and identifies 145 new species of fish (not personally you understand - a scientist on the ship did that bit).
Late 1800's to early 20th century
Many expeditions largely by sealers and whalers to all parts of Antarctica.Mainly marine exploration and exploration of the sub Antarctic islands.
March. Adrien de Gerlache and the crew of the "Belgica" become trapped in pack ice off the Antarctic Peninsula in the first scientific expedition to the continent. They become the first to survive an Antarctic winter(involuntarily!) as their ship drifts with the ice (they didn't enjoy it).1899
Carsten Borchgrevink leads a British expedition that landed men at Cape Adare and built huts. This was the first time that anyone had wintered on the Antarctic landmass. Believed by some historians to be the first confirmed landing on continental Antarctica.1901
Captain Scott, UK, leads his first Antarctic expedition to try to reach the South Pole, with Ernest Shackleton and Edward Wilson. They are forced to turn back two months later having reached 82 degrees south, suffering from snow blindness and scurvy.
other publicly and privately sponsored expeditions
around this time.
1907 - 1909 Ernest Shackleton leads expedition to within 156km / 97mls of the South Pole, turns back after supplies are exhausted.
reaches the South Magnetic Pole.
December 14th. Norwegian Roald Amundsen leads a five man expedition that reaches the South Pole for the first time.1912
January 18th. Britain's Captain Robert Falcon Scott reaches the South Pole to discover he has been beaten by Amundsen. All of the five man team (Scott, Bowers, Evans, Oates and Wilson), are to perish on the return journey only 11 miles from supply depot. Bodies are not discovered until November.
Douglas Mawson begins his trek
across George V Land back to his base at Commonwealth
Bay. His two companions had died, and against the
odds he makes it home. A new section of coast is
discovered and described, and radio is used for
the first time in Antarctica.
October. Ernest Shackleton returns to Antarctica in an attempt to complete the first crossing of the continent. The goal is not attained, but one of the greatest adventures of all time follows. Their ship is crushed in the sea ice and a small party sets out for South Georgia and the whaling station. The party is eventually rescued in 1917.1923
The beginning of large-scale factory ship whaling in the Ross Sea.
Australian Sir George Wilkins and American Carl Benjamin Eielson are the first to fly over Antarctica around the peninsula region.1929
Richard E. Byrd and three others - US - become the first to fly over the South Pole.1935
Lincoln Ellsworth - US - flies across the continent.
Caroline Mikkelsen, Norway, is the first woman to set foot on Antarctica when she accompanies her husband, a whaling captain.1947
Operation Highjump - US- sends the largest ever expedition of over 4700 men, 13 ships and 23 airplanes to Antarctica. Most of the coast is photographed for map making.1956
US aircraft lands at South Pole. First people there since Scott and his team in 1912.1st July 1957 - 31st Dec 1958
International Geophysical Year (IGY) 12 nations establish over 60 stations in Antarctica. The beginning of international cooperation in Antarctica and the start of the process by which Antarctica becomes "non-national".
The first successful land crossing via the South Poleis led by British geologist Vivian Fuchs with New Zealander Edmund Hillary leading the back up party, over 40 years after Shackleton's expedition set out with the same aim.1961
Antarctic treaty comes into effect
Boerge Ousland (Norway) becomes first person to cross Antarctica unsupported. Taking 64 days from Berkner Island to Scott base towing a 180kg (400lb) sled and using skis and a sail.March 2007 - March 2009
International Polar Year - Actually Spans two years in order that researchers get the opportunity to work in both polar regions or work summer and winter if they wish.
1776 - USA becomes independent from Great Britain
1780 - James Watt perfects the steam engine
1815 - Battle of Waterloo
1830 - World's first railway opens
1840 - Victoria becomes queen of Great Britain
1859 - Darwin publishes "Origin of Species"
1885 - Karl Benz builds the first motor car
1896 - Marconi invents wireless telegraph (radio)
1901 - Australia becomes an independent nation.
Queen Victoria dies. End of the Victorian era.
President McKinley shot, USA. Roosevelt takes over
1903 - Wright brothers make the first powered flight of an airplane
Marie Curie becomes first woman to win a Nobel prize
1908 - Ford motor company produce the "Model T"
1910 - Republic of South Africa established
1912 - Titanic sinks on maiden voyage killing 1500 people
1919 - Professor Ernest Rutherford splits the atom
1927 - Al Jolson stars in the "Jazz Singer" the first talkie film
1930's - Great depression era
1939 - 1945
1947 - Picard invents the bathyscaphe and descends to 4000m in the ocean
1953 - Edmund Hilary and Sherpa Tensing climb Mount Everest for the first time
1969 - Men first walk on the moon