Pictures of Antarctica
Antarctica Picture | Antarctica Cruise | Facts | History | Boots | Store | Clothes | Whales  | Books | Video | Schools | Forum | Site Map | FIDS / OAE's

Antarctic Diving 8 - Flakes of Ice Forming at 5m

Back to gallery    Back to thumbnails    Next     Previous

When the temperature drops in the sea, sometimes in the shallows ice starts to form below the surface as it is here. It starts as a nucleation point which can happen on submerged sea weed as here as delicate flakes of ice randomly forming ice crystals. In the shallows of 1-2m, ice may form on the sea bed from below as above.

Normally ice freezes from the surface of the water down as ice has a very unusual property amongst all substances in that as it turns from liquid to a solid, so it expands rather than contacts which is normal for cooling materials. This is why sea-ice floats rather than sinks as it would if it was almost anything else. The effect on the planet is profound, if water behaved "normally" then the oceans would be mainly solid ice other than the upper reaches and warmer climates.

Water has its maximum density at 4C and so all of the depths of the worlds oceans are at or around 4C as this temperature water descends due to it being denser than water around it of other temperatures.

Previous Next

This picture may not be copied or used in any manner without prior written permission.

Thermal, insulated underwear

Extreme Cold Weather Clothing

Lonely Planet travel guide Antarctica
Buy from Amazon USA USA  |  Buy from Amazon UK UK
Free world delivery

Frozen Planet
Buy from Amazon USA DVD  |  Buy from Amazon UK DVD

Buy from Amazon USA DVD  |  Buy from Amazon UK DVD

The Endurance - Shackleton's Legendary Expedition
Dramatization with original footage

Buy from Amazon USA DVD  |  Buy from Amazon UK DVD

Cool Antarctica Store - Pictures, Shirts, Calendars, Cards etc.

Free Delivery on all Books at the Book Depository

Custom Search

Home | Site Map | Pictures | Antarctica Stock Photos | Facts | History | Antarctica Travel | Antarctic Clothing | Video | Books | Calendars
FIDS | Feedback | Buy pictures | Find a trip to Antarctica | Whales | Photography | UGG Boots | Schools | Jewelry

Copyright  ©  2001 Paul Ward  |  copyright issues  |  privacy policy  |