Reply to Paul Ward
Thank you for your comments, but my calculations show that the total world energy for 2003, primary and energy from the population, is only 0.0084% of the received solar energy. As follows.
Solar constant = 1.367?10^3 W/m^2.
Area of cross section of Earth = 1.27?10^8 Km^2
= 1.27?10^14 m^2
Therefore, solar power on Earth = 1.367?10^3?1.27?10^14 Watts
= 1.736?10^17 Watts
No. of seconds in 1 year = 3.1536?10^7
Therefore, solar energy received on Earth = 1.736?10^17?3.1536?10^7 Joules in 1 year
= 5.47?10^24 Joules in 1 year
The source www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/aer/txt/ptb1101.html
I used in my paper
and go to Science and Technology and then Energy and global warming ) gives the world total primary energy as 417.12 Quad BTU for 2003.
ie. World primary energy = 417.12?10^15 BTU for 2003
But 1 BTU = 1055 Joules
Therefore, world primary energy = 4.1712?10^17?1.055?10^3 Joules
= 4.40?10^20 Joules for 2003
Also, energy from population = 0.19?10^20 J
Therefore, total world energy = 4.59?10^20 Joules for 2003
Therefore, total anthropogenic energy = (4.59?10^20) / (5.47?10^24) of solar energy
= 0.0084 % of solar energy
With the Earth at a stable equilibrium temperature, the incoming solar energy, less the energy given up to the biosphere (see below) for photosynthesis and to make things grow (that is storing chemical energy), is balanced by the outgoing infra-red radiation. Net effect, zero.
Therefore, although small by comparison with the incoming solar energy, nevertheless the anthropogenic energy is important and, as I demonstrated in my paper, it is more than sufficient to explain the observed effects. The anthropogenic energy calculated above, 4.59?10^20 Joules in 1year, is enough to melt about twice the observed annual ice melting
, and the remainder stays in the atmosphere.
The anthropogenic energy, after use by mankind, enters the Earth?s atmospheric system as heat,ie. as increased kinetic energy
of the air molecules. This, of course, does not cause internal molecular excitation, and so no radiation can occur, even from the GHG components. Energy obviously cannot escape into space by conduction or convection, and so the anthropogenic energy is retained within the Earth?s system, and builds up over time and so causes global warming.
The extra energy in the atmosphere is circulated by the normal currents towards the poles in the usual way, where it causes extra ice to melt, as calculated. Naturally, some ice reforms during the winter, so releasing its latent heat into the system again, but a greater amount is melted during the following summer because the latent heat just liberated is still available in the system and yet more anthropogenic energy has also been injected during the intervening months.
Solar energy entering the Earth?s surface, less that deducted by the biosphere and stored as chemical energy, is re-radiated again to outer space as infra-red, but the used anthropogenic energy is largely in the form of kinetic energy which cannot escape, as demonstrated above.
The only figure I have been able to find for the energy taken by the biosphere is a gross amount of 40 Terrawatts, which is only 0.023% of the incoming solar energy. This figure does indeed have to be compared with the solar energy, because it is this proportion which determines the equilibrium temperature attained by the Earth. So the reduction of Earth?s temperature is small, particularly as it is governed by fourth power dependency of the Stefan-Boltzmann law.
I trust I have answered all the points you raised, but I should be pleased to receive any further comments.
Aubrey E Banner, Sale, Cheshire, UK