I can't say too much about which of those subjects is your best bet. Most of them would offer a chance at work in Antarctica, but the odds change a good deal by subject, as would the places that you could go.
However, I can tell you what sort of science is being done in Antarctica, broadly speaking:
Maritime biology (around the coast), geology (mostly in the few locations where rock is exposed, though there have also been aerial surveys using radar), climate and weather, seismology, and astronomy.
There are several observatories at the South Pole, including a neutrino detector (IceCube) where many of the workers are from European universities and your knowledge of French and German may be of use (as well as your English, of course). I have also seen suggestions that other places may be opened up for astronomy.
Biological research in Antarctica is primarily along the coast, because that is where things are living, though some research is also done in the dry valleys (not FAR from the coast, but inland nevertheless), and microbes have even been found living in the ice of the polar plateau.
Climate science is done all over the continent, and seismological stations are at a number of sites but don't require too much presence on the ground.
Or, you could do like many others do and go down as a carpenter, cook, or general flunkie.
Best of luck.