Third lieutenant in charge of holds,
stores, provisions and deep sea water analysis, from 1903 -
George Mulock took over form Ernest Shackleton
on the event of the latter's early departure from the Discovery
expedition in 1903. Mulock was a sub-lieutenant in the Navy
and only 21 at the time of joining the expedition from HMS
Triton where he had been surveyor.
The following biographical sketch
is kindly provided by Mr. R.B.D. Hughes Chairman of the
Mulock Heritage Council:
Captain GEORGE FRANCIS ARTHUR
MULOCK, FRGS, DSO, RN, RD, RNR was born in Fleetwood, Lancashire
in February 1882 and educated at Stanmore Park and HMS Britannia
(BRNC Dartmouth). Of an Anglo-Irish family Mulock was a
cousin to Sir William Mulock KCMG, PC (1843 - 1944) Canadian
Postmaster-General, Air Commodore Redford H "Red"
Mulock CBE, DSO & bar, RNAS, RCAF, Canada's WWI Air
Ace and Mr Richard Mullock, first manager of the Welsh Rugby
Team and "Father of the Welsh Rugby Union".
As a sub-lieutenant he was appointed to the relief ship
Morning, attached to Scott's National Antarctic Expedition,
1901 - 04, transferring to the shore party in March 1903
in exchange for Ernest H Shackleton, many reasons for this
change of personnel have been muted, but Mulock had qualified
in marine surveying while serving in HMS Triton and was
a more competent Cartographer & Surveyor. In addition
to survey work, Mulock was given primary responsibility
for holds, stores, provisions and deep-sea water analysis.
Mulock was just 21 when he transferred to Discovery,
although her Chief Engineer, Lt Reginald Skelton was less
than impressed. "Mulock is distinctly peculiar for
such a youngster, a mixture of sulkiness, attempts at sarcasm,
great readiness to take offence where none is meant, a little
conceit." In September 1903 he accompanied Lt Michael
Barne on what was to be a ten-week southern journey to explore
an inlet of the Western Mountains; weather and surface conditions
drove them back soon after they had reached Barne Glacier.
The temperature fell to -67.7 Fahrenheit and Seaman Ernest
E. Joyce got badly frost-bitten feet. The situation grew
so serious that Barne and Mulock took turns to hold them
against the pits of their stomachs and knead the ankles
for several hours, saving his feet from certain amputation.
Scott had a very high opinion of Mulock's abilities
and initiative, frequently recording praise of him in his
diaries. In his written account of the expedition, Captain
R F Scott wrote "Mulock was then only twenty-one years
of age but...having a natural bent for his work, his services
proved invaluable". On the return of the expedition,
King Edward VII awarded the Silver Polar Medal Mulock and
the Admiralty lent him to the Royal Geographical Society
for a year to complete the compilation of the survey. His
results were published by the society in 1908 as The Charts
of the Discovery expedition and in the same year he received
the coveted Fellowship of the Royal Geographical Society
In 1907, Scott approached Mulock, Barne and Skelton
about the possibility of another expedition. Then on 12t"
February, Shackleton announced that he had secured £30,000
and was to attempt to go south. Shackleton wrote to Mulock
asking him to become expedition surveyor & cartographer,
although flattered to be asked, Mulock declined on account
of a gentleman's agreement with Captain Scott. Correspondence
between Mulock and Shackleton is held at the Scott Polar
During the First World War, he
served with distinction in the Gallipoli campaign, as Beach
Master at Cape Helles and Sulva Bay, receiving the Distinguished
Service Order for his gallantry. By late 1916, Mulock had
been advanced to Commander and was made Captain of HMS Bee,
a river gunboat of the Aphis-Class in the China Squadron.
In 1920 he retired from the Royal Navy after 25 years service
and joined the Asiatic Petroleum Co. as Marine Superintendent
At the outbreak of the Second World
War, Mulock was re-activated and advanced to Captain. Due
to his experience Captain Mulock was appointed XDO S'Pore
- Extended Defences Officer for the British Crown Colony
of Singapore. It was Mulock who was charged with the evacuation
of the civilian population as Japanese forces closed in.
Mulock and other officers were captured in February 1942
following the fall of Singapore to Imperial Japanese Forces
under General Yamashita. The Japanese took over 100,000
prisoners at Singapore following the surrender. Many would
later die building the infamous Burma-Thailand railway and
endure the appalling treatment of POW Camps.
most senior naval officer to be captured at Singapore, Mulock
was also one of the oldest officers (he was 63 when released
in 1945) to be transported to Taiwan and held at the Karenko
and Shirakawa POW Camps.
After the Second World War,
Captain Mulock retired to Gibraltar where he died at the
age of 81, on the 26th December 1963. Mulock's lasting contribution
to the study of the Antarctic continent was his charts of
the region, later used by many expeditions. His obvious
talent for surveying and cartography led to the production
of accurate and highly detailed works. The Mulock Inlet
and the Mulock Glacier were discovered by the British National
Antarctic Expedition and were later named in Mulock's honour
by the NZAPC.
Landmarks named after George Mulock
Type: Ice stream
A re-entrant about 10 mi wide between Capes Teall and Lankester.
The feature is occupied by lower Mulock Glacier which drains
through it to the Ross Ice Shelf. Discovered by the BrNAE (1901-04).
A large glacier draining ESE into Mulock Inlet in the NW corner
of the Ross Ice Shelf. Named by the NZAPC in association with